Decanted chemistry

The alcohol was removed from the final solution by adding water.  Alcohol is an inorganic substance that contains hydrogen bonding.  Not only will the alcohol dissolve in water over the organic ester solution because likes dissolve likes, but the hydroxyl end of the alcohol will interact with the hydrogen bonding of water; therefore, the organic and inorganic substances will separate.  The ethanoic acid and the sulfuric acid were separated from the ester by adding sodium bicarbonate.  The sodium bicarbonate is very effective in removing acids from solutions.  The carbonate ion reacts with the free H+ ions from the acid to make carbonic acid which dissociates into carbon dioxide and water.  The sodium reacts with the acetate and sulfate ions to produce a salt that will dissolve in water over the organic ester solution.

Infectious agents of various classes can be observed in urine sediments. In most cases, their significance can be properly assessed only in light of the clinical signs, method of collection, post-collection interval, and other findings in the urinalysis. For instance, urine collected off the floor or some other receptacle could be contaminated by fecal material. Organisms seen in feces (bacteria, Trichuris eggs) may be then misidentified as urinary pathogens. Rarely, organisms that are abundant in peripheral blood may be seen in urine samples with severe blood contamination or hematuria. For example, there have been reports of microfilaria of Dirofilaria immitis being observed in urine of a dog with hematuria and severe microfilaremia due to heartworm infection.

Decanted chemistry

decanted chemistry


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