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Most Windows text files use "ANSI", "OEM", "Unicode" or "UTF-8" encoding. What Windows terminology calls "ANSI encodings" are usually single-byte ISO/IEC 8859 encodings (. ANSI in the Microsoft Notepad menus is really "System Code Page", non-Unicode, legacy encoding), except for in locales such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean that require double-byte character sets. ANSI encodings were traditionally used as default system locales within Windows, before the transition to Unicode. By contrast, OEM encodings, also known as DOS code pages , were defined by IBM for use in the original IBM PC text mode display system. They typically include graphical and line-drawing characters common in DOS applications. "Unicode"-encoded Windows text files contain text in UTF-16 Unicode Transformation Format. Such files normally begin with Byte Order Mark ( BOM ), which communicates the endianness of the file content. Although UTF-8 does not suffer from endianness problems, many Windows programs (. Notepad) prepend the contents of UTF-8-encoded files with BOM, [2] to differentiate UTF-8 encoding from other 8-bit encodings. [3]

The authors write that debunkers should try to build up people's egos in some way before confronting false beliefs because it is difficult to consider ideas that threaten one's worldviews [3] [39] (., threatening ideas cause cognitive dissonance ). It is also advisable to avoid words with negative connotations. [3] [40] The authors describe studies which have shown that people abhor incomplete explanations – they write "In the absence of a better explanation, [people] opt for the wrong explanation". It is important to fill in conceptual gaps, and to explain the cause of the misconception in the first place. [3] [41] The authors believe these techniques can reduce the odds of a "backfire" – that an attempt to debunk bad science will increase the audience's belief in misconceptions.

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