Testosterone cells

Leydig cell isolation and culture. Leydig cells were isolated as described previously ( Klinefelter et al. 1987 ), with slight modifications. The testes were decapsulated, placed in a dissociation buffer [M-199 medium with g/L HEPES, g/L bovine serum albumin (BSA), g/L sodium bicarbonate (pH ), and 25 mg/L trypsin inhibitor] containing collagenase ( mg/mL) at 34°C, and shaken for 30 min. Digested testes were passed through a 100-μm nylon mesh, and Leydig cells were purified by Percoll gradient separation. The final purity of the Leydig cells, determined by staining the cells for 3β-HSD activity, was consistently approximately 90%.

Examples of other areas of the body in which Testosterone and related androgens will exert effects (but in a different end result) is in the kidneys, where Testosterone will, through the same signaling via receptor interaction, signal the cells of the kidneys to begin or increase the manufacture of a hormone known as Erythropoietin (EPO), which is a protein hormone that then travels to bone marrow and signals an increase in red blood cell production [4] . This is what leads to elevated red blood cell and higher hemoglobin levels while on an anabolic steroid cycle. “Hemoglobin levels” and “red blood cell count” are synonymous with one another, as hemoglobin is the protein contained in the center of each red blood cell, which is where oxygen becomes attached to when red blood cells travel to the lungs to pick up oxygen. The red blood cell then travels to various tissues and cells throughout the body to deliver the attached oxygen before returning to the lungs to allow more oxygen to attach to the hemoglobin protein. Therefore, a rise in hemoglobin levels will always correlate with a rise in red blood cell count. The fact is that all anabolic steroids exhibit this effect of erythropoiesis, and although some anabolic steroids will stimulate erythropoiesis to a greater degree than others, they all exhibit this characteristic that is the result of the anabolic steroid’s interaction with androgen receptors in the cells of the kidneys. There is some evidence, however, to suggest that DHT ( Dihydrotestosterone ) and a few of its derivatives might not exhibit this activity in kidney cells because DHT is very quickly metabolized into non-active hormones by way of the 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase series of enzymes, which are present in very high amounts in the kidneys as well as muscle tissue [5] .

A team led by Dr. Joel Finkelstein at Massachusetts General Hospital investigated testosterone and estradiol levels in 400 healthy men, 20 to 50 years of age. To control hormone levels, the researchers first gave the participants injections of a drug that suppressed their normal testosterone and estradiol production. The men were randomly assigned to 5 groups that received different amounts (from 0 to 10 grams) of a topical 1% testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. Half of the participants were also given a drug to block testosterone from being converted to estradiol.

Endogenous androgens are responsible for normal growth and development of the male sex organs and for maintenance of secondary sex characteristics. These effects include growth and maturation of the prostate , seminal vesicles , penis , and scrotum ; development of male hair distribution, such as beard , pubic, chest, and axillary hair; laryngeal enlargement, vocal cord thickening, and alterations in body musculature and fat distribution. Drugs in this class also cause retention of nitrogen , sodium, potassium , and phosphorous, and decreased urinary excretion of calcium. Androgens have been reported to increase protein anabolism and decrease protein catabolism . Nitrogen balance is improved only when there is sufficient intake of calories and protein.

Testosterone cells

testosterone cells

Endogenous androgens are responsible for normal growth and development of the male sex organs and for maintenance of secondary sex characteristics. These effects include growth and maturation of the prostate , seminal vesicles , penis , and scrotum ; development of male hair distribution, such as beard , pubic, chest, and axillary hair; laryngeal enlargement, vocal cord thickening, and alterations in body musculature and fat distribution. Drugs in this class also cause retention of nitrogen , sodium, potassium , and phosphorous, and decreased urinary excretion of calcium. Androgens have been reported to increase protein anabolism and decrease protein catabolism . Nitrogen balance is improved only when there is sufficient intake of calories and protein.

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